Katherine Beckett. Banished

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

At the core of this regime lie practices of banishment. Increasing swaths of urban space are delimited as zones of exclusion from which the undesirable are banned. The uniformed police are marshaled to enforce and often delineate these boundaries; they use their powers to monitor and arrest in an attempt to clear the streets of those considered unsightly or “disorderly.”

–––––

– Highlight Loc. 129-30 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 10:08 PM

In short, cities across the United States increasingly employ novel social control mechanisms that entail spatial exclusion and fuse civil and criminal legal authority. Other cities of the global North deploy similar tactics.22

==========

– Highlight Loc. 156-57 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 10:12 PM

Indeed, the deployment of the new control tools-touted by proponents as alternatives to arrest and punishment-has a “net-widening” effect: it creates crimes and criminal cases that would not otherwise exist. Taken together, these techniques represent a dramatic extension of the state’s authority and surveillance   capacity throughout the urban landscape.

==========

– Highlight Loc. 178-80 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 10:16 PM

Vagrancy laws were also an important weapon in urban battles against immorality and disorder.41 As adapted and implemented in the United States, these laws reflected deeply held concerns about idleness; they primarily penalized   those who did not appear to work.

=========

– Highlight Loc. 192-94 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 10:18 PM

Unsatisfied with this restriction on police power, many cities in the 19gos began to pass civility codes. Like the vagrancy laws, these ordinances criminalize   behaviors deemed disorderly and are used to deal with nuisances rather than serious crime. Unlike vagrancy laws, however, these criminal laws proscribe   specific behaviors (e.g., sitting) rather than status (being transient or homeless) .4′

==========

– Highlight Loc. 214-16 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 10:24 PM

the infusion of criminal law with other sources of legal authority does not undermine the logic of criminalization. Instead, it enhances the power of police and prosecutors to address behaviors and situations   that do not otherwise constitute crimes. This includes mere presence in particular urban spaces. Some of these techniques can be so broadly employed that they essentially criminalize status for some urban residents;

=========

– Highlight Loc. 238-39 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 10:28 PM

banishment does nothing to resolve any of the underlying   conditions that generate social marginality, such as poor employment prospects, inadequate affordable housing, or the challenges of addiction.

==========

– Highlight Loc. 256-58 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 10:32 PM

by defining mere presence in certain urban spaces as a crime, the new tools broaden the range of behaviors that can lead to criminal justice intervention. In this sense, the new social control practices go beyond the civility laws and restore to the police the broad discretion historically   bestowed by traditional vagrancy and loitering laws. Not surprisingly, these exclusions contribute substantially to the overcrowding of the courts and jails.

==========

– Highlight Loc. 283-85 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 10:40 PM

Officials tend to imagine these neighborhoods almost exclusively in terms of the degree to which they house and tempt the deviant. The banished, on the other hand, offer rich accounts of the historical and symbolic significance of those same areas, as well as the importance of the social networks and services they contain.

==========

– Highlight Loc. 308-11 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 10:56 PM

Banishment represents a quick fix to this widespread fear. It is, at root, an attempt to use the criminal justice system to solve a set of entrenched social problems. It renders the territorial authority of the police remarkably robust and largely free from challenge. As a consequence, those who are unwanted-which   includes those who merely offend our aesthetic sensibilities-feel

continually harassed and unwelcome. The moral division between the respectable   and not-so-respectable is reinforced daily by a spatial division between the included and excluded.

==========

– Highlight Loc. 345-47 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 11:01 PM

As the Western Regional Advocacy Project notes, it is common to see homelessness   as an individual choice. To use the criminal law to try and clean up the streets of a city like Seattle is to reinforce this individualistic logic. The threat of a fine or a jail stay is meant to deter individuals from sleeping on sidewalks or gathering in parks late at night.

==========

– Highlight Loc. 359-61 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 11:05 PM

at least a third of those who live in central cities face an affordable housing problem.” Part of this is due to stagnant wages, increased joblessness, and associated poverty; part to shifts in housing markets fueled significantly by gentrification; and part to the withdrawal of government funding for housing and other forms of social support.

==========

– Highlight Loc. 392-94 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 11:09 PM

Economic shifts helped generate a dearth of affordable housing by both limiting living wage jobs and fueling urban real estate redevelopment. Yet government policies were also deeply complicit in generating the housing crunch. Most significantly, federal government involvement in providing housing assistance dropped precipitously in the 198os, as did funding for other forms of social support.

==========

– Highlight Loc. 411-12 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 11:14 PM

In 2004, 61 percent of all federal housing subsides went to households earning over $54,000; only 27 percent went to those households earning less than $34,5 00. For every year since r98r, tax benefits for home ownership have been greater than HUD’s entire budget.38

==========

– Highlight Loc. 431-33 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 11:20 PM

during the welfare retrenchment of the r98os, various forms of financial assistance were curtailed significantly. With their need for services less likely to be met, and their ability   to afford housing increasingly weakened, the mentally ill were among the charter members of the new homeless.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 451-53 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 11:24 PM

the theory suggests a connection between, on one hand, street-level behaviors engaged in by homeless people and other ostensibly   disreputable people, and, on the other hand, more serious criminality.58 This connection arguably occurs through a sequence of events that begins with an unrepaired broken window or some other sign of unaddressed disorder. For Wilson and Kelling, broken windows symbolize a neighborhood that does not care about itself.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 457-59 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 11:25 PM

To “fix” broken windows means, in large part, using the police’s coercive power to remove undesirable people from public space. Advocates of broken windows policing therefore call for city governments   to give the police broad and flexible means of regulating public spaces and removing those deemed disorderly.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 472-73 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 11:27 PM

Vagrancy was no longer a crime, but sitting or lying on a sidewalk was. Loitering   was not prohibited, but one could not camp in a park. The police were thus better protected from constitutional challenge by possessing a clearer behavioral   focus for their law enforcement efforts.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 482-84 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 11:29 PM

This concern was particularly acute for commercial   establishments reliant on shoppers and tourists, many of whom abhor visible evidence of social disadvantage. For those seeking to revive downtown and improve downtown aesthetics, the broken windows theory was a boon. The popularity of this theory legitimized various civility codes that targeted the everyday behaviors of those deemed disorderly.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 506-7 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 11:51 PM

On one hand, banishment provides the police greater legal capacity to place pressure on frequent users of public space, and hence to seem responsive to requests that they clean up areas targeted as disorderly. Yet the power the police can exert is ultimately a blunt and ineffective weapon against such widespread problems as poverty, chemical addiction, and mental illness.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 528-30 | Added on Thursday, June 03, 2010, 11:59 PM

Over the course of the r98os and 19gos, the increased visibility of socially marginal populations triggered fear and frustration on the part of many (increasingly middle-class and professional) urban residents and business   owners. In this context, concern about the rights of the accused attenuated,   and the felt need to enhance order intensified.’

This concern dovetailed with the rising popularity of the broken windows theory.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 538-40 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 12:00 AM

these laws criminalize many common behaviors-such as drinking, sleeping, and urinating-when those behaviors occur in public spaces. For this reason, they have a disproportionate   impact on the homeless. In addition, these ordinances provide the police with an important set of order maintenance tools and arguably enable the

police to make stops and conduct searches that they could not otherwise legally make.’

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 563-65 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 12:06 AM

Many downtown business groups joined police officials in conveying their support for this proposed ordinance to city council members. The result was the 1973 adoption of Seattle Municipal Code 12A.10.020, which prohibits loitering “under circumstances manifesting the purpose of inducing, enticing, soliciting or procuring another to commit an act of prostitution.”

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 581-83 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 12:08 AM

In Seattle, a drug traffic loitering ordinance was introduced again in 19go, this time by City Attorney Marl, Sidran. The ordinance was meant to prohibit drug traffic loitering, which was defined as remaining in a public place and intentionally   soliciting, inducing, enticing, or procuring another to engage in illegal drug activity.25

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 599-601 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 12:10 AM

Stay out of Drug Area (SODA) orders.32 Indeed, a few months after the adoption of the drug traffic loitering ordinance, the first SODA order was issued to someone   convicted of drug traffic loitering.” These were modeled after a similar, preexisting scheme for creating off-limits orders, Stay Out of Areas of Prostitution   (SOAP) orders.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 611-12 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 12:12 AM

The areas from which people are banned often comprise significant parts of the city and may include the entire downtown core in which social and legal services are concentrated. In Seattle today, roughly half of the city’s terrain, including all of the downtown, is defined as a drug area from which someone might be banned.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 627-29 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 12:14 AM

Parks exclusion laws authorize police and parks officials to ban persons for committing minor infractions (such as being present after hours, having an unleashed pet, camping, urinating, littering, or possessing an open container of alcohol) from one, some, or all public city parks for up to one year

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 651-52 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 12:18 AM

as critics point out, this emphasis on the noncriminal nature of the exclusion itself obscures the fact that the ordinance creates a new crime-being   present in a park in violation of exclusion order.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 667-69 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 12:22 AM

Some trespass programs ban those who have been arrested for or convicted of particular crimes (including residents) from public housing buildings and grounds. Other no-trespass policies ban nearly all nonresidents, not just those who are unwelcome or uninvited by residents. Still others allow law enforcement officers wide discretion in deciding who to trespass admonish from the facilities and arrest for trespass if they return.56

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 679-81 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 12:23 AM

Trespass admonishments are used to limit access to other kinds of properties   that are normally open to the public. In Seattle, for example, people are also trespass admonished from libraries and recreation centers, the public transportation system, college campuses, hospitals and religious institutions, social service agencies, and commercial establishments.”

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 688-90 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 12:27 AM

property owners sign a contract with the SPD in which they authorize the police to act as their agents in revoking certain individuals’ right to use the property. That contract enables the police to exercise trespass power without soliciting the owner’s permission to do so in any given instance. Officers are thereby allowed to target individuals on a property whom they believe lack “legitimate purpose” for being there. When this happens, officers first issue a trespass admonishment.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 732-33 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 12:32 AM

The new social control tools are resolutely territorial: they seek to remove those perceived as disorderly from particular geographic locations. The exercise of territoriality is a central component of police power,76

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 751-53 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 01:30 PM

In short, the new legal tactics that entail banishment are defended as a means of achieving spatial control over those defined as disorderly; removal and even displacement   are thus key policy objectives. Of course, there are other less publicly articulated rationales for these practices, as suggested by the prosecutor who noted that exclusion orders allow the police to “find out what is inside peoples’ pockets.”

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 764-66 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 01:33 PM

These exclusion orders need not be based on a criminal conviction or even arrest. Indeed, the police frequently do not even provide any reason for the exclusion. The banned citizen not only possesses no venue to contest the admonishment but also now falls within the boundaries of a new status category. The same dynamic occurs with parks exclusion orders: officers decide in the field to create such an order and thereby empower themselves to mobilize the criminal law in the future.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 781-82 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 01:39 PM

In each instance, a violation of a civil banishment order becomes a criminal offense. These new criminal offenses, as noted, then provide the police expanded means to monitor and arrest. They also give prosecutors new crimes with which to charge individuals and judges more opportunities to impose yet more spatial restrictions on those charged and convicted.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 832-33 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 01:45 PM

Together, the new techniques   broaden the range of existing criminal offenses; increase the power, authority, and discretion of the police; and decrease the rights-bearing capacity of their targets. In this sense, they represent a return to status-based prohibitions   against vagrancy.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 842-45 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 02:26 PM

banishment is used primarily to manage people and situations that bother and disturb-but   do not endanger-other urban residents. For example, we find that banishment orders are often used by the police to initiate contact with a homeless person or to respond to low-level issues such as disturbances, panhandling,   and alcohol consumption. In this sense, the new social control tools restore to the police the capacity to exercise moral regulation previously endowed by vagrancy and related statutes.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 894-95 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 02:33 PM

In sum, our data indicate that many-perhaps most-of those who experience   banishment in Seattle are homeless. The data also indicate that banishment   is disproportionately imposed on people of color, especially blacks and Native Americans,

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 928-29 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 02:38 PM

In short, downtown is both home to a sizable proportion of the socially disadvantaged population and the site of a disproportionate share of parks exclusion orders and trespass exclusions.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 974-76 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 02:54 PM

If someone is excluded from any of the establishments in this or other trespass   programs, to return to any one of them is to commit a criminal offense. Thus, although exclusion from a particular commercial establishment may not appear significant, the creation of trespass programs like that in Rainier Beach means that a trespass admonishment can have significant implications. These programs significantly expand the zone of exclusion and underscore the strong role of the police.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 994-96 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 02:56 PM

One finding is that much of banishment practice occurs downtown. This is especially the case for parks exclusions and significantly   true for criminal trespass admonishments as well. There are other locales where criminal trespass is heavily used; these are areas where many people-especially   young people of color-gather in public space or that have recently experienced significant gentrification. In most cases, no reason is offered for a trespass admonishment.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1079-82 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 03:05 PM

The ability to generate and enforce exclusions gives the police the power to closely monitor those people and places that generate widespread complaints from business owners and others worried about the presence of people perceived as disorderly. With this power, the police can intervene regularly in the lives of the banished to question and possibly arrest and search them. Rarely focused on serious crime, the police instead work primarily to enforce zones of exclusion and, in so doing, place pressure on the unwanted to relocate.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1102-4 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 03:10 PM

the police and prosecutors face significant political pressure to “do something” to address disorder. One means to appease such pressure is to create and publicize mechanisms that enable banishment. Banishment further appeals to police and correctional officers because it significantly increases their power to monitor, search, and arrest those they encounter in public space.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1137-39 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 03:14 PM

Predictably, the growth in SODA orders generated a growth in cases involving allegations of their violation.’ When such violations occur, they commonly trigger a new charge, probation violation, in Municipal Court. They may also lead to the filing of the original felony charge in Superior Court. In short, because of the transfer of residue possession cases to the municipal court, the number of drug cases adjudicated in that setting grew significantly, as did the number of SODA violations.”

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1152-55 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 03:16 PM

First, the proportion of exclusion notices banning people from parks for an entire year has dramatically increased, from 4 percent to 34.6 percent.   Second, the proportion of people who are excluded from only a single park is now quite small, just 8.8 percent.’4 In other words, the spatial consequences of a parks exclusion notice are increasingly significant; more than 9o percent of parks exclusion notices issued in 2005 banned people from a park zone (a group of geographically proximate parks) or from all city parks.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1190-92 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 04:18 PM

A key implication of the broken windows philosophy was a redirection of police energies. Rather than attempting to capture a major felony offender after the commission of a crime, the police were advised to address low-level offenses by the homeless and others who symbolized disorder. In this way, the police would “fix broken windows” by clearing them from public space.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1203-4 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 04:21 PM

Metropolitan Improvement District (MID). The MID is a self-taxing organization, which provides services desired by downtown   business owners. One of its most visible efforts is its Clean and Safe program. The program mobilizes employees, known as ambassadors, to both help clean the streets and monitor street-level behavior.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1221-22 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 04:25 PM

In short, whatever else the practices of banishment accomplish in Seattle, they do appear to provide evidence that the police are responding when anticrime   organizations clamor for action. As the head of the NCI indicated, his program provides “the perception that something is happening.”

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1246-48 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 04:30 PM

Once arrested for a SOAP or SODA violation, an individual can legally be subjected to a full search, which may provide more evidence of criminal wrongdoing. This is another obvious advantage of lowering the bar for probable   cause. As one city attorney noted, an arrest enables the police “to get in the pockets” of suspect individuals, a reality that several officers noted with strong approval.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1267-69 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 04:35 PM

The SODA order, the officer noted, provided him and his colleagues with the continuing capacity to monitor many of those he encounters on the streets and to use the threat or actuality of arrest to convince them to relocate. As one officer said about police priorities, “Really, you just want to get them out of your area. That’s all you really want.”

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1290-91 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 04:39 PM

SODA orders and other forms of banishment thus provide city attorneys with an opportunity to show that they are responding to citizen concerns about crime and disorder. This is enabled in part by the degree of cooperation between the police and the city attorney’s office.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1333 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 04:45 PM

Our evidence   suggests that banishment does not lead to relocation, stabilization, or reduced criminal justice involvement. For this reason, we are doubtful that it is an effective crime-fighting tool.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1337-39 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 04:46 PM

Whereas city officials imagine the parks and neighborhoods from which people are banned largely in terms of the illicit opportunities those places afford, our respondents reported much more complex relationships to those areas. For many, these spaces are often the only place they felt themselves to be at home. Even those who lack permanent shelter possess strong attachments to particular places.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1352-54 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 04:48 PM

These rationales rest on a set of questionable assumptions. For example, the idea that spatial exclusion enhances order assumes that the world is fairly neatly divided between the orderly and the clearly identifiable disorderly, with the latter serving solely as a vector of crime and diminished quality of life. Yet matters are more complicated than this social cartography allows.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1406-7 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 04:53 PM

For the minority that did comply, several factors were pertinent. First, many in this group likely found another place to live outside of their exclusion area. Second, the prospect of jail was especially terrifying and thereby helped compel compliance.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1437-39 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 04:57 PM

But most explained their noncompliance in terms of the importance to their well-being of the space from which they had been excluded. Many people reported that parks and the other facilities housed in SODA zones were simply   an essential dimension of their lives. Social contact was among the important   amenities offered in parks and other exclusion zones.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1542-43 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 05:05 PM

Many of our respondents also reported that their exclusion order limited their capacity to see family and maintain social contacts. This was especially painful for people when their capacity to connect with their family or people of the same cultural background was diminished.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1574-75 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 05:07 PM

Thus, banishment often works to reduce access to important social services.   It can also diminish income-earning opportunities. Recall Jose, trespassed   from Casa Latina: “Now I can’t get regular work, so I gotta hustle.” Others also reported losing a job or access to a job training program:

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1620-21 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 05:20 PM

Exclusion, many said, not only imposed material hardships but also triggered   feelings of shame, anger, hurt, and resentment. Respondents found offensive the symbolic message embedded in their exclusion order.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1638-40 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 05:22 PM

Mere common were various negative consequences. These included impaired geographic mobility, diminished safety and security, loss of income and access to work, diminished access to social services, police harassment, and frequent entanglement in criminal justice institutions. For many, these material hardships were significantly exacerbated by the pain, hurt, shame, and anger triggered   by banishment.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1810-12 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 05:35 PM

Like the rest of us, the homeless and other disadvantaged people are connected to place; they rely on predictable time-space patterns and social relationships to meet their daily needs. Because of these attachments, many of those we interviewed could not or would not quit the zones from which they were legally excluded.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1817-18 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 05:37 PM

Being excluded was a powerful emotional experience for many, embodying their sense that they were no longer considered citizens, even fully human, by other residents of Seattle. In a variety of ways, then, banishment rendered the lives of some of Seattle’s most vulnerable residents more difficult.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1832-34 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 05:39 PM

In short, the interview data indicate that banishment largely fails to achieve its stated goals of relocation and stabilization. By contrast, these data provide evidence that banishment does achieve a less frequently stated goal-allowing police officers greater discretion and authority when dealing with those deemed disorderly.   In this sense, the deployment of banishment may be a policy failure but a political achievement.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1907-9 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 07:42 PM

The web of social control not only widens across space but intensifies in its ability to keep an individual ensnared. The homeless and others in public space face the increasing likelihood of bearing multiple spatial exclusions, such that they face the nearly perpetual threat of arrest and jail.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1970-71 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 08:48 PM

The therapeutic justice movement takes various forms, such as drug courts, mental health courts, and community courts. Although they differ in their particulars   and vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, these courts are commonly organized around a core set of principles. One, as suggested, is an emphasis on treatment.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 1972-74 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 08:48 PM

The approach is defendant-based rather than case-based: courtroom encounters are used to work with the defendant to craft a care plan and monitor compliance with that plan.’ This requires a second key characteristic of problem-solving courts: that they mobilize a team approach, whereby all the actors-including judges and attorneys-deliberately seek to minimize the adversarial nature of the courtroom.’

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 2029-31 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 08:54 PM

A central principle of harm reduction is the recognition that some people will always engage behaviors   that are risky, such as drug use and sexual commerce. Although we can and should attempt to reduce these behaviors, no society has ever eradicated all unwanted forms of deviance. From this perspective, “abstinence cannot be the only goal of [drug] policy, or of treatment providers.”28

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 2036-37 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 08:55 PM

Thus, from a harm reduction point of view, the active intervention of the criminal justice system is often counterproductive and a source of damage. If policed aggressively, activities such as drug use and sexual commerce may be pushed into more and more dangerous places.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 2051-52 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 08:57 PM

Without permanent housing, individuals are less likely to respond favorably to any social service intervention designed to propel them toward independent living. From this perspective, housing is a basic need, one that deserves to be met regardless of any troublesome behavior, such as alcohol or drug use.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 2060-61 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 08:59 PM

Here, especially chronic alcoholics are given subsidized housing. Contrary to typical practice, they are allowed to drink there. This is for the very sensible reason that long-term, chronic alcoholics are most likely going to continue to drink. Rather than make housing contingent on an impossible demand-that they stop drinking-it is better to provide a more realistic option.

==========

Banished: The New Social Control in Urban America (Katherine Beckett and Steve Herbert)

– Highlight Loc. 2090-92 | Added on Friday, June 04, 2010, 09:03 PM

Such a discourse would recognize several realities: that extreme inequality adversely impacts us all, that poverty stems from structural dynamics that extend well beyond the lone denizen of the street, that security means something more than protection for middle-class whites from the discomforts of urban life, that justice includes the proposition that everyone enjoy a minimal quality of life, and that tolerance of diversity is integral to democracy.